Domain-Adaptive Instruction Generation (DAIG)

Koushik Konwar

June 18, 20245 min read

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In the fascinating domain of artificial intelligence (AI), Large Language Models (LLMs) have surfaced as critical components in language understanding and generation tasks. Their ability to comprehend intricate linguistic patterns and generate human-like text demonstrates remarkable advancements in natural language processing (NLP).  

Today, they stand as a testament to human endeavour to replicate cognitive abilities of language comprehension. 

Yet, utilizing these models in their raw form comes with its fair share of challenges. 

Such as? 

The inherent complexity and the extensive range of outputs that these models can necessitate techniques to improve precision, control and task relevance. Instruction tuning addresses this challenge, presenting a new paradigm in fine-tuning these language models. This fine-tuning helps to direct the outputs of the model towards achieving more relevant, suitable and accurate results that align better with specific application requirements. 

In the realm of instruction tuning for Large Language Models, the SELF-INSTRUCT approach for data preparation has long been a prevalent method adopted by many. 

However, the constraints and shortcomings inherent in the SELF-INSTRUCT style data preparation method have profoundly influenced us to innovate and contrive a unique approach.  

Our objective is to develop a technique that enhances our in-house LLM's ability to comprehend our domain-specific data more effectively and accurately. This custom approach aims to surpass the limitations of existing methods, ultimately unlocking greater potential and efficiency in our Large Language Model application. 

Table of Contents

Aligning Language Models with Self-Generated Instructions (SELF-INSTRUCT)

DAIG - Aligning Language Models with Self-Generated Instructions (SELF-INSTRUCT)


The SELF-INSTRUCT process is an integral part of instruction tuning in LLMs.  

  • The process is set into motion using a small, fundamental set of tasks, which form the foundation of the task pool.  

  • These tasks are then randomly selected from the pool and used as prompts to stimulate an existing language model.

  • The Language Model is then used to produce not only fresh instructions but also associated instances.

  • The consequent stage in the process is critical - carefully filtering and meticulously removing instances that are of low quality or bear excessive similarity to previous generations.  

  • These refined instructions and instances are then reincorporated into the original task repository. This refinement process ensures the task pool's integrity and fosters the creation of a comprehensive, high-quality dataset.  

  • Of significant importance is the end application. The resulting dataset plays a pivotal role in the subsequent fine-tuning of the language model. This process enhances the model's competency in adhering to and executing instructions more accurately. 

Limitations of the SELF-INSTRUCT approach

Despite gaining considerable attention and standing at the forefront of AI advancement, the approach of instruction tuning in Large Language Models is not without its caveats and complexities. It presents several challenges:  

1) Complexity of seed task generation

The initial phase of seed task generation, a cornerstone of instruction tuning, is often demanding and intricate. This process necessitates substantial expertise to ensure the tasks are comprehensive and well-defined. The inherent complexity of natural language, with its diverse nuances and vast contextual variations, further exacerbates this challenge.  

2) Disconnected instructions and domain data

A significant hurdle in implementing instruction tuning is the potential disconnect between domain data and the instruction framework.  Since instruction data is generated during the operational process, controlling its nature becomes inherently limited. 

The solution? 

One proposed solution to the data disconnect involves generating instructions using a placeholder method, followed by later substitution with domain-specific data. While this approach holds promise, it introduces the risk of misalignment between instructions and data.  Instructions generated independently may not perfectly harmonize with the nuances of the target domain, potentially hindering the model's ability to leverage this valuable knowledge.   

The result? 

The resulting suboptimal conditioning of the model can lead to inefficiencies in the fine-tuning process. Our focus in subsequent sections will be on exploring techniques to bridge this gap and achieve a seamless integration of instructions and domain data. 

To address the limitations outlined above and enhance LLM precision, we have formulated a novel approach to instruction tuning. This approach specifically targets the challenge of disconnected data by fostering a tighter integration between domain data and the generated instructions. This integration is critical for maximizing the overall performance and reliability of the LLM. 

Bridging the gap between instructions and domain data

In our quest to generate instructions influenced by domain data, we've devised a strategy leveraging a language model to create new tasks within the CXM domain. This language model takes cues from an example task and relevant domain data provided as input.

Our framework introduces added flexibility should we need to angle our instructions toward a specific task. Here, we curate a small pool of domain instruction tasks (if we want to angle our instructions towards a specific task), which are randomly selected based on probability.  

This adaptability allows us to fine-tune the data for model precision without overfitting. Finally, the generated instructions are sent back to the LLM alongside the input data to establish the definitive ground truth for the corresponding instruction, ensuring alignment between instruction and domain knowledge. 

Domain-Adaptive Instruction Generation (DAIG)

"Domain-Adaptive Instruction Generation (DAIG)" 

The flowchart above illustrates the process of generating domain-specific instructions for Large Language Models (LLMs). It starts with a pool of domain-specific and general-purpose instructions.  

Based on the desired task, specific instructions are probabilistically sampled from this pool. These sampled instructions are then combined with domain data and a prompt, which guides an AI-powered Language Model (LM) to generate new instructions. These new instructions are influenced by the sampled examples but constrained by the available domain data.  

Finally, the newly generated instruction and the corresponding conditioned domain data are fed back to the LLM to create their corresponding ground truths.

Advantages of DAIG over traditional SELF-INSTRUCT method

Our Domain-Adaptive Instruction Generation (DAIG) approach offers several advantages over the traditional self-instruct method:  

  1. Streamlined implementation: DAIG eliminates the need for manual seed task creation, significantly simplifying implementation. 

  2. Enhanced control over instruction generation: This setup affords us greater command over generating instructions, allowing us to tailor the level of domain focus based on our specific needs. 

  3. Input data-specific instruction creation: Unlike self-instruct, DAIG generates instructions directly tied to the input data being processed, ensuring they are highly relevant and specific. 

  4. Compatibility with complex input data: DAIG seamlessly handles domains with intricate input data that are difficult to artificially reproduce. This is particularly beneficial for scenarios where expecting the LLM to autonomously generate instructions from such complex data within a self-instruct framework would be impractical. 

The predominant challenge encountered is acquiring an extensive and diverse repertoire of foundational instructions. These fundamental instructions act as building blocks for the LLM when generating new directives. Thankfully, there are now many open-source instructional datasets available, such as ORCA, that provide a convenient solution for this very need.  


Large Language Models (LLMs) have emerged as powerhouses in understanding and generating language, but their true potential hinges on their ability to grasp domain-specific intricacies. Traditional SELF-INSTRUCT tuning methods face limitations like complex seed task creation and difficulty integrating domain data.  

To bridge this gap, a novel Domain-Adaptive Instruction Generation (DAIG) approach has been developed. DAIG leverages input domain data to create instructions, offering finer control over the generation process and improved compatibility with intricate data. This, coupled with open-source instructional datasets, paves the way for more effective LLM fine-tuning, allowing them to be tailored to specific tasks within specific domains.

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